Internet Protocol

The Internet was not created with security and privacy in mind

The Internet is composed of hardware infrastructure and software infrastructure. The hardware infrastructure consists of client computers, routers, and critical Internet infrastructure (routers, ISP access hubs, fiber optic cables, switches, satellites and submarine cables of the backbone network, etc.). Software infrastructure consists of communication protocols, domain name systems, login systems, data centers, etc.

OSI model

The model partitions the flow of data in a communication system into seven abstraction layers to describe networked communication from the physical implementation of transmitting bits across a communications medium to the highest-level representation of data of a distributed application. Each intermediate layer serves a class of functionality to the layer above it and is served by the layer below it. Classes of functionality are realized in all software development through all standardized communication protocols.

The two major international organizations that play a major role in formulating computer network standards are: International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) and the International Standards Organization (ISO). These standards allow computers of different types and operating systems around the world to communicate with each other.

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