Search engines play a crucial intermediary role on the internet, enabling individuals to find and access the content they need, including platforms like Google, Bing,, and Yahoo. Search engines typically collect vast amounts of user data, including IP addresses, search queries, as well as the time, date, and location of the computer submitting the request. As discussed earlier, this information can be used to track individuals and may reveal sensitive details such as political beliefs, sexual orientation, religious affiliations, and medical health.

While this information is generally used for commercial purposes, there is also a risk of information exposure, as seen in cases like the previously mentioned online data breaches in the United States. Issues related to privacy and the protection of other human rights pose significant risks in countries with limited human rights protections.

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